Cholera-symptoms,prevention, treatment

Hello everyone… In this article we will talk talk Cholera disease. This article discuss about cholera, sign and symptoms, prevention of cholera, treatment of cholera and other facts related with cholera.

Cholera-symptoms,prevention, treatment

According to World Health Organisation (WHO)-

Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Cholera remains a global threat to public health and an indicator of inequity and lack of social development. Researchers have estimated that every year, there are roughly 1.3 to 4.0 million cases, and 21 000 to 143 000 deaths worldwide due to cholera.

 Causes

Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes cholera, is usually found in food or water contaminated by feces from a person with the infection. Common sources include:
Municipal water supplies
Ice made from municipal water
Foods and drinks sold by street vendors
Vegetables grown with water containing human wastes
Raw or undercooked fish and seafood caught in waters polluted with sewage
When a person consumes the contaminated food or water, the bacteria release a toxin in the intestines that produces severe diarrhea.

Cholera Sign &Symptoms

Cholera is an extremely virulent disease that can cause severe acute watery diarrhoea. It takes between 12 hours and 5 days for a person to show symptoms after ingesting contaminated food or water . Cholera affects both children and adults and can kill within hours if untreated.

Most people infected with V. cholerae do not develop any symptoms, although the bacteria are present in their faeces for 1-10 days after infection and are shed back into the environment, potentially infecting other people.

Among people who develop symptoms, the majority have mild or moderate symptoms, while a minority develop acute watery diarrhoea with severe dehydration. This can lead to death if left untreated.

Treatment

According to WHO,Cholera is an easily treatable disease. The majority of people can be treated successfully through prompt administration of oral rehydration solution (ORS). The WHO/UNICEF ORS standard sachet is dissolved in 1 litre (L) of clean water. Adult patients may require up to 6 L of ORS to treat moderate dehydration on the first day.

Severely dehydrated patients are at risk of shock and require the rapid administration of intravenous fluids. A 70 kg adult will require at least 7 L of intravenous fluid, plus ORS during their treatment. These patients are also given appropriate antibiotics to diminish the duration of diarrhoea, reduce the volume of rehydration fluids needed, and shorten the amount and duration of V. cholerae excretion in their stool.

Oral vaccines

Currently there are 3 WHO pre-qualified oral cholera vaccines: Dukoral®, Shanchol™, and Euvichol®. All 3 vaccines require 2 doses for full protection (5).

Dukoral® is administered with a buffer solution that, for adults, requires 150 ml of clean water. As access to clean water is often limited in areas with cholera epidemics, Dukoral® is mainly used for travellers. Dukoral® provides approximately 65% protection against cholera for 2 years.

Shanchol™ and Euvichol® are essentially the same vaccine produced by 2 different manufacturers. They do not require a buffer solution for administration, which makes them easier to administer to large numbers of people in emergency contexts. There must be a minimum of 2 weeks delay between each dose of these 2 vaccines. However, 1 dose of vaccine will provide some protection with the second dose given at a later date.

 

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *