Hello everyone… In this article we will talk talk Cholera disease. This article discuss about cholera, sign and symptoms, prevention of cholera, treatment of cholera and other facts related with cholera.
According to World Health Organisation (WHO)-
Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Cholera remains a global threat to public health and an indicator of inequity and lack of social development. Researchers have estimated that every year, there are roughly 1.3 to 4.0 million cases, and 21 000 to 143 000 deaths worldwide due to cholera.
Cholera Sign &Symptoms
Cholera is an extremely virulent disease that can cause severe acute watery diarrhoea. It takes between 12 hours and 5 days for a person to show symptoms after ingesting contaminated food or water . Cholera affects both children and adults and can kill within hours if untreated.
Most people infected with V. cholerae do not develop any symptoms, although the bacteria are present in their faeces for 1-10 days after infection and are shed back into the environment, potentially infecting other people.
Among people who develop symptoms, the majority have mild or moderate symptoms, while a minority develop acute watery diarrhoea with severe dehydration. This can lead to death if left untreated.
According to WHO,Cholera is an easily treatable disease. The majority of people can be treated successfully through prompt administration of oral rehydration solution (ORS). The WHO/UNICEF ORS standard sachet is dissolved in 1 litre (L) of clean water. Adult patients may require up to 6 L of ORS to treat moderate dehydration on the first day.
Severely dehydrated patients are at risk of shock and require the rapid administration of intravenous fluids. A 70 kg adult will require at least 7 L of intravenous fluid, plus ORS during their treatment. These patients are also given appropriate antibiotics to diminish the duration of diarrhoea, reduce the volume of rehydration fluids needed, and shorten the amount and duration of V. cholerae excretion in their stool.
Currently there are 3 WHO pre-qualified oral cholera vaccines: Dukoral®, Shanchol™, and Euvichol®. All 3 vaccines require 2 doses for full protection (5).
Dukoral® is administered with a buffer solution that, for adults, requires 150 ml of clean water. As access to clean water is often limited in areas with cholera epidemics, Dukoral® is mainly used for travellers. Dukoral® provides approximately 65% protection against cholera for 2 years.
Shanchol™ and Euvichol® are essentially the same vaccine produced by 2 different manufacturers. They do not require a buffer solution for administration, which makes them easier to administer to large numbers of people in emergency contexts. There must be a minimum of 2 weeks delay between each dose of these 2 vaccines. However, 1 dose of vaccine will provide some protection with the second dose given at a later date.